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The Good News
2015 October
Pg 3 - The Sunshine Express
This research was supported by the Air Force Of-
fice of Scientific Research under grant FA9550-13-
1-0088, by the National Science Foundation under
awards CMMI-1404621, EFRI-1435452 and CMMI-
1462895, and by the SUTD Digital Manufacturing and
Design Centre, supported by the Singapore National
Research Foundation. The content is the responsibil-
ity of the authors and does not necessarily represent
the official views of the sponsoring agencies.
CITATION: Yiqi Mao, et al., ¡°Sequential Self-Folding
Structures by 3D Printed Digital Shape Memory Poly-
mers,¡± (Scientific Reports, 2015).
dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep13616
(source: Research News, Georgia Institute of Tech-
nology, www.news.gatech.edu/2015/09/21/
4-d-technology-allows-self-folding-complex-objects)
Excerpts from the report:
** Folding and unfolding are one of the most impor-
tant mechanisms for generating large deformation
and motions in nature, with a plethora of examples
such as the winged insects and tree leaves. In recent
years, folding has attracted increasing interest for
technological applications. A contemporary example
is origami, the ancient art of paper folding that has
found increasing engineering applications ranging
from space exploration, foldable photovoltaics and
batteries, to shopping bags, biomedical devices, and
metamaterials.
** Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart ma-
terials that can recover their permanent shapes from
one, or sometimes multiple, programmed temporary
shapes when an appropriate stimulus is applied, such
as temperature, magnetic fields, and light. Since this
type of smart materials has the potential to sense
environmental changes and react accordingly in a
predetermined sequence, they are promising candi-
dates for spontaneous configuration-changing ap-
plications. Besides, they can be chemically tuned to
achieve biocompatibility and biodegradability, and
hence have been studied extensively for biomedical
and aerospace applications.
The federal government conducted
$49.9 billion, or 11 percent of the
country¡¯s R&D in 2013, including
$33 billion performed by agen-
cies and in their own facilities
and $16.8 billion by 40 federally
funded R&D centers. While fed-
eral R&D saw yearly increases of
between $1 billion and $2 billion
from 2008 to 2011, its 2013 total
was a $1.5 billion decrease from
the previous year.
Other nonprofits performed an
estimated $18.6 billion in R&D in
2013, or 4 percent of total U.S.
expenditures.
Most of the U.S. total for R&D in
2013 - $285 billion, or 63 percent
- went toward development. Basic
4-D Printing (continued from page 1)
$940 million proposed settlement with a na-
tionwide class of Native American Tribes and
tribal entities that, if approved by the federal
district court, would resolve a 25-year-old legal
dispute related to contract support costs for
tribal agencies.
The proposed settlement would address claims
that the United States contracted with tribes to
run programs but did not pay the full amounts
required by law.
¡°This landmark settlement represents another
important step in the Obama Administration¡¯s
efforts to turn the page on past challenges
in our government-to-government relation-
ship with tribes,¡± said Interior Secretary Sally
Jewell. ¡°Tribal self-determination and self-
governance will continue to be our North Star
as we navigate a new chapter in this important
relationship, and we are committed to fully
funding contract support costs so that tribal
contracting can be more successful. Congress
can and should make this happen. Today¡¯s an-
nouncement resolves past claims and allows
money wrapped up in litigation to be used
more productively.¡±
The proposed settlement, announced by Inte-
rior Secretary Jewell, Assistant Secretary for
Indian Affairs Kevin Washburn and Principal
Deputy Assistant Attorney General Benjamin
C. Mizer, head of the Justice Department¡¯s
Civil Division, would address claims that the
government contracted with tribes and tribal
agencies to (continued on Page 4>>>)
research activities accounted for $80.5 billion,
or 18 percent, of total expenditures. Applied
research accounted for $90.6 billion, or 20 per-
cent. (source: NSF)
The business sector continues to be the largest
performer of R&D, accounting for 71 percent
of national expenditures.
Image credit: iStock.com/DNY59
U.S. Business R&D performance
continues to drive increases
September 21, 2015: U.S. expenditures in research
and development rose to $456.1 billion in 2013, a
$20.7 billion increase over the previous year, accord-
ing to a new report from the National Science Foun-
dation¡¯s National Center for Science and Engineering
Statistics.
The research and development (R&D) system in the
U.S. is comprised of multiple performers, including
businesses, the federal government, non-federal gov-
ernment, universities and colleges and other nonprofit
organizations. Organizations that perform R&D often
receive significant levels of outside funding.
The business sector continues to be the largest
performer of R&D in the U.S., accounting for $322.5
billion, or 71 percent, of total national expenditures.
That figure represents a $20.3 billion increase over
the previous year. The business sector¡¯s predomi-
nance is a longstanding trend; from 1993 to 2013, its
annual share ranged from 68 percent to 74 percent.
Universities and colleges accounted for the second-
highest performance in 2013, with $64.7 billion,
or 14 percent, of total U.S. R&D expenditures. The
education sector has a special niche in the nation¡¯s
R&D system: universities and colleges performed 51
percent of the nation¡¯s basic research in 2013.
R&D in 2013 outpaced GDP
Fed Settles Another Lawsuit
Interior, Justice Departments Announce
$940 Million Landmark Settlement with
Nationwide Class of Tribes and Tribal
Entities; Ramah Navajo Chapter v. Jewell
Resolves Historic Contract Support Cost
Lawsuit with Tribes
WASHINGTON: The U.S. Department of Justice
and the U.S. Department of the Interior (Inte-
rior), on September 17, 2015, announced a