background image
The Good News
2016 February/March
Pg 3 - The Sunshine Express
Cavitation bubbles bursting with cleaning power
January 11, 2016: It¡¯s easy to think of soap suds when
one thinks of bubbles, but there are bubbles that can
clean without chemicals. They are called ¡®cavitation
bubbles¡¯, which are created when air is churned up in
water, and what researchers are learning could ultimately
lead to chemical-free cleaning methods for fruits and
With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF),
biofluid scientist Sunghwan ¡°Sunny¡± Jung and his team at
Virginia Tech are studying how a cavitation bubble creates
a suctioning effect when it collapses, pulling everything
close by toward it.
Cavitation bubbles are already in use for certain industrial
applications, such as cleaning water at treatment plants.
Jung¡¯s fluid mechanics lab is working with food scientists
to see how effective cavitation bubbles are at pulling
everything from soil to E. coli and Salmonella away from
the smooth surface of a tomato or the bumpy surface of a
In the future, Jung envisions bubble machines as a com-
mon appliance at farmer¡¯s markets and maybe even in
Research was supported by NSF grant #1335957, Col-
laborative Proposal: Long-term dynamics of water-entry.
Jung also has similarly named but separate research
grant from NSF.
(by Miles O¡¯Brien, Science Nation Correspondent, Ann
Kellan, Science Nation Producer, Courtesy: National Sci-
ence Foundation,
December 2015 Colorado
Employment Situation
January 26, 2016: Employers in Colorado
added 10,700 nonfarm payroll jobs from No-
vember to December for a total of 2,539,400
jobs, according to the survey of business
establishments. Private sector payroll jobs
increased 10,000 and government increased
According to the survey of households, the
unemployment rate decreased one-tenth of a
percentage point in December to 3.5 per-
cent. The number of people actively partici-
pating in the labor force increased 7,600 to
2,819,100 and total employment increased
10,200 to 2,719,800 causing the number
of unemployed to decrease 2,600 and the
unemployment rate to decline to 3.5 percent.
The national unemployment rate remained
unchanged from November to December at
5.0 percent.
Over the year, the average workweek for
all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
decreased from 34.1 to 33.4 hours and aver-
age hourly earnings increased from $26.44
to $27.15.
The largest over the month private sector job
gains were in construction, leisure and hospi-
tality, and manufacturing. The only over the
month decline was in mining and logging.
Over the year, nonfarm payroll jobs in-
creased 46,600 with an increase of 41,300 in
the private sector and an increase of 5,300
in government. The largest private sector job
gains were in leisure and hospitality, con-
struction, and education and health services.
The largest private sector job declines were
in professional and business services, infor-
mation, and mining and logging.
Over the year, the unemployment rate is
down seven-tenths of a percentage point
from 4.2 percent and is at the lowest level
since April 2007. The number of Coloradans
participating in the labor force decreased
5,100, total employment increased 15,200,
Findings May Bring Huge Benefits
and the number of unemployed decreased
20,300. The national unemployment rate
declined from 5.6 percent in December
2014 to 5.0 percent in December 2015.
All Colorado estimates from the establish-
ment and household surveys, including
greater geographic detail, are available at:
Estimates for all states and the nation are
available at:
The January 2016 Colorado Employment
Situation will be released at 8a on Monday,
March 14, 2016. Revised statewide esti-
mates for 2015 and 2014 and some updat-
ed local information will also be released.
The full schedule of release dates for cal-
endar year 2016 estimates is available at:
Nonfarm payroll jobs estimates are based
on a survey of business establishments and
government agencies, and are intended to
measure the number of jobs, not the num-
ber of people employed. Other series based
on this survey include private sector aver-
age weekly hours, average hourly earnings
and average weekly earnings.
The unemployment rate, labor force, labor
force participation, total employment and
the number of unemployed are based on
a survey of households. The total employ-
ment estimate derived from this survey is
intended to measure the number of people
The business establishment survey covers
about seven times the number of house-
holds surveyed and is therefore considered
a more reliable indicator of economic condi-
tions. Because the estimates are based on
two separate surveys, one measuring jobs
by worksite and the other measuring per-
sons employed and unemployed by house-
hold, estimates based on these surveys
may provide seemingly conflicting results.
(Source: Contact: Of-
fice of Government & Public Relations, Bill
Thoennes: 303.318.8004 or Cher Haavind:
Colorado Jobs Report